This is a working page. Entries are not limited to references, but include short texts turned up by searches. References are in varied formats (ascii, bibtex) and from a variety of sites, of which the New Zealand Digital Library is foremost.

Likely keywords: text summarization, automatic abstracting, automatic summary, automated summary, natural language summary, summarizing texts, tailored summary, condensation;
text skimming, partial parsing, fragmentary parsing;
tagger.

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TEXT SUMMARIZATION

from Amit Singhal, February 1995:

Automatic Text Decomposition Using Text Segments and Text Themes. Gerard Salton, Amit Singhal, Chris Buckley, and Mandar Mitra, Hypertext '96 (to appear). Also Technical Report TR95-1555, Department of Computer Science, Cornell University. (Available from http://www.cs.cornell.edu)

Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring. Gerard Salton, James Allan, and Amit Singhal, Information Processing and Management, 32(2), 127-138, 1996.

Automatic Analysis, Theme Generation, and Summarization of Machine Readable Texts. Gerard Salton, James Allan, Chris Buckley, and Amit Singhal, Science 264 (3 June, 1994), 1421-1426.

from James Allen, February, 1995:

G. Salton and J. Allan. Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring''. RIAO '94.

G. Salton and J. Allan. Selective Text Utilization and Text Traversal''. Proceedings of the {\em Fifth Annual ACM Conference on Hypertext}, November 1993, pp 131-144. Also Cornell Computer Science Technical Report 93--1366.

G. Salton and J. Allan. Selective Text Utilization and Text Traversal''. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, v.{\bf 43}, pp.~483-497, 1995.

G. Salton, C. Buckley, and J. Allan. Automatic Structuring and Retrieval of Large Text Files''. {\em Communications of the ACM\/}, February, 1994. Also Cornell Computer Science Technical Report 92--1286.

@InProceedings{McKeown95, author = "Kathleen McKeown and Dragomir R. Radev", title = "Generating Summaries of Multiple News Articles", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval", series = "Text Summarization", pages = "74--82", year = "1995", copyright = "(c) Copyright 1995 Association for Computing Machinery", keywords = "Natural language summarization, Natural language generation, Summarization of multiple texts", abstract = "We present a natural language system which summarizes a series of news articles on the same event. It uses summarization operators, identified through empirical analysis of a corpus of news summaries, to group together templates from the output of the systems developed for ARPA's Message Understanding Conferences. Depending on the available resources (e.g., space), summaries of different length can be produced. Our research also provides a methodological framework for future work on the summarization task and on the evaluation of news summarization systems.",}

@InProceedings{Kupiec95, author = "Julian Kupiec and Jan Pedersen and Francine Chen", title = "A Trainable Document Summarizer", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval", series = "Text Summarization", pages = "68--73", year = "1995", copyright = "(c) Copyright 1995 Association for Computing Machinery", keywords = "Summary sentence, Original documents, Summary pairs, Training corpus, Document extracts", abstract = "* To summarize is to reduce in complexity, and hence in length, while retaining some of the essential qualities of the original. * This paper focusses on document extracts, a particular kind of computed document summary. * Document extracts consisting of roughly 20\% of the original can be as informative as the full text of a document, which suggests that even shorter extracts may be useful indicative summaries. * The trends in our results are in agreement with those of Edmundson who used a subjectively weighted combination of features as opposed to training the feature weights using a corpus. * We have developed a trainable summarization program that is grounded in a sound statistical framework.",}

@InProceedings{Salton93, author = "Gerard Salton and James Allan", title = "Selective Text Utilization and Text Traversal", booktitle = "Proceedings of ACM Hypertext'93", series = "Papers", pages = "131--144", year = "1993", copyright = "(c) Copyright 1993 Association for Computing Machinery", keywords = "Full-text access, Information retrieval, Passage retrieval, Text analysis, Global text comparisons, Local context checking, Automatic text linking, Selective text reading, Text summarization", abstract = "Many large collections of full-text documents are currently stored in machine-readable form and processed automatically in various ways. These collections may include different types of documents, such as messages, research articles, and books, and the subject matter may vary widely. To process such collections, robust text analysis methods must be used, capable of handling materials in arbitrary subject areas, and flexible access must be provided to texts and text excerpts of varying size. In this study, global text comparison methods are used to identify similarities between text elements, followed by local context-checking operations that resolve ambiguities and distinguish superficially similar texts from texts that actually cover identical topics. A linked text structure is then created that relates similar texts at various levels of detail. In particular, text links are available for full texts, as well as text sections, paragraphs, and sentence groups. The linked structures are usable to identify important text passages, to traverse texts selectively both within particular documents and between documents, and to provide flexible text access to large text collections in response to various kinds of user needs. An automated 29-volume encyclopedia is used as an example to illustrate the text accessing and traversal operations.",}

@TechReport{CORNELLCS//TR94-1438, author = "Gerard Salton and Amit Singhal", title = "Automatic Text Theme Generation and the Analysis of Text Structure", institution = "Cornell University, Computer Science Department", type = "Technical Report", number = "CORNELLCS//TR94-1438", pages = "27", month = jul, year = "1994", language = "English", abstract = "Non-expository texts are not usually read from cover to cover. Readers are helped in such circumstances by providing selective access to text excerpts as needed. Text themes can be identified representing areas of importance in a text, and summaries can be constructed automatically. In this study, text theme generation and text summarization are related to text struture. It is shown that useful text derivatives are obtainable for texts with diverse structural characteristics.",}

@Article{Fum86, author = "Danilo Fum and Giovanni Guida and Carlo Tasso", title = "Tailoring importance evaluation to reader's goals: a contribution to descriptive text summarization", journal = "COLING-86", pages = "256--259", year = "1986",}

@InProceedings{ijcai85*840, author = "Danilo Fum and Giovanni Guida and Carlo Tasso", title = "Evaluating Importance: {A} Step Towards Text Summarization", pages = "840--844", editor = "Aravind Joshi", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 9th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence", address = "Los Angeles, CA", month = aug, year = "1985", publisher = "Morgan Kaufmann",}

@Article{Fum82, author = "Danilo Fum and Giovanni Guida and Carlo Tasso", title = "Forward and backward reasoning in automatic abstracting", journal = "COLING-82", pages = "83--88", year = "1982",}

1977: S. L. Taylor and G. K. Krulee and L. T. Henschen Automatic Abstracting of Textual Material

1961: H. P. Edmundson and R. E. Wyllys Automatic abstracting and indexing, survey and recommendations

SIG/ALP - WHAT KINDS OF TEXT SUMMARY ARE POSSIBLE NOW/ KUKICH K IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIS ANNUAL MEETING 1996 Vol.33 Pages 266 - 266 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z699.A1A62 FLOOR 1 SER: v.5- 1968- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.31 / 1994 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE AUTOMATIC SUMMARY; NATURAL LANGUAGE TEXT GENERATION; NATURAL LANGUAGE SUMMARY; AUTOMATIC ABSTRACTING

AN EXPERIMENT IN THE USE OF TOOLS FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED ABSTRACTING/ CRAVEN TC IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIS ANNUAL MEETING 1996 Vol.33 Pages 203 - 208 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z699.A1A62 FLOOR 1 SER: v.5- 1968- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.31 / 1994 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE Experimental subjects wrote abstracts of an article using a simplified version of the TEXNET abstracting assistance software. In addition to the full text, the 35 subjects were presented with either keywords or phrases extracted automatically. The resulting abstracts, and the times taken, were recorded automatically; some additional information was gathered by oral questionnaire. Results showed considerable variation among subjects, but 37% found the keywords or phrases ''quite'' or ''very'' useful in writing their abstracts. Statistical analysis failed to support several hypothesized relations: phrases were not viewed as significantly more helpful than keywords; and abstracting experience did not correlate with originality of wording, approximation of the author abstract, or greater conciseness. Results also suggested possible modifications to the software. RETRIEVAL; DISPLAY; TEXT

THE ART OF ABSTRACTING - CREMMINS,ET NICKUM MJ IN: LIBRARY JOURNAL 1996 JUN 1 Vol.121 No.10 Pages 160 - 160 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z671.L7 FLOOR 1 SER: v.72-<84-85>- 1947- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.121 no.19+S / 1996 NOV UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE

HIGHLIGHTS - LANGUAGE-INDEPENDENT AND DOMAIN-INDEPENDENT AUTOMATIC-INDEXING TERMS FOR ABSTRACTING (VOL 46, PG 162, 1995)/ COHEN JD IN: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE 1996 MAR Vol.47 No.3 Pages 260 - 260 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z1001.A42 FLOOR 1 SER: v.21- 1970- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.47 no.11 / NOV 1996 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE

ABSTRACTING FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF TEXT PRODUCTION/ ROTHKEGEL A IN: INFORMATION PROCESSING & MANAGEMENT 1995 SEP Vol.31 No.5 Pages 777 - 784 CARLETON LIBRARY DOES NOT HOLD THIS TITLE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES DO NOT HOLD THIS TITLE This paper takes the view that an abstract itself is a text which is subjected to general and specific conditions of text-production. It is assumed that the goal-namely the forming of the abstract as a text-controls the whole process of abstracting. This goal-oriented view contrasts to most approaches in this domain which are source-text oriented. Further, production strategies are described in terms of text structure building processes which are re-constructed with methods of modelling in the area of text-linguistics and computational linguistics. This leads to a close relationship between the representation of the model and he resulting text, In this view, examples are given in which authentical material of abstracts is analysed according to the model. The model itself integrates three text levels (content, function, form) which are combined and represented in terms of the writer's activities.

GENERATING SUMMARIES FROM EVENT DATA MAYBURY MT IN: INFORMATION PROCESSING & MANAGEMENT 1995 SEP Vol.31 No.5 Pages 735 - 751 CARLETON LIBRARY DOES NOT HOLD THIS TITLE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES DO NOT HOLD THIS TITLE Summarization entails analysis of source material, selection of key information, condensation of this, and generation of a compact summary form. While there have been many investigations into the automatic summarization of text, relatively little attention has been given to the summarization of information from structured information sources such as data or knowledge bases, despite this being a desirable capability for a number of application areas including report generation from databases (e.g. weather, financial, medical) and simulations (e.g. military, manufacturing, economic). After a brief introduction indicating the main elements of summarization and referring to some illustrative approaches to it, this article considers specific issues in the generation of text summaries of event data. It describes a system, SumGen, which selects key information from an event database by reasoning about event frequencies, frequencies of relations between events, and domain specific importance measures. The article describes how SumGen then aggregates similar information and plans a summary presentation tailored to a stereotypical user. Finally, the article evaluates SumGen performance, and also that of a much more limited second summariser, by assessesing information extraction by 22 human subjects from both source and summary texts. This evaluation shows that the use of SumGen reduces average sentence length by approx. 15%, document length by 70%, and time to perform information extraction by 58%. AUTOMATED SUMMARY; NATURAL LANGUAGE GENERATION; IMPORTANCE; CONDENSATION; AGGREGATION; TAILORED SUMMARY; AUTOMATED ABSTRACTING

HOW TO IMPLEMENT A NATURALISTIC MODEL OF ABSTRACTING - 4 CORE WORKING STEPS OF AN EXPERT ABSTRACTOR/ ENDRESNIGGEMEYER B IN: INFORMATION PROCESSING & MANAGEMENT 1995 SEP Vol.31 No.5 Pages 631 - 674 CARLETON LIBRARY DOES NOT HOLD THIS TITLE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES DO NOT HOLD THIS TITLE Four working steps taken from a comprehensive empirical model of expert abstracting are studied in order to prepare an explorative implementation of a simulation model. It aims at explaining the knowledge processing activities during professional summarizing, Following the case-based and holistic strategy of qualitative empirical research, we develop the main features of the simulation system by investigating in detail a small but central test case-four working steps where an expert abstractor discovers what the paper is about and drafts the topic sentence of the abstract. Following the KADS methodology of knowledge engineering, our discussion begins with the empirical model (a conceptual model in KADS terms) and aims at a computational model which is implementable without determining the concrete implementation tools (the design model according to KADS), The envisaged solution uses a blackboard system architecture with cooperating object-oriented agents representing cognitive strategies and a dynamic text representation which borrows its conceptual relations in particular from RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory). As a result of the discussion we feel that a small simulation model of professional summarizing is feasible. INFORMATION MAIER E, SIGEL A,

A HYPERTEXT TUTORIAL ON ABSTRACTING FOR LIBRARY-SCIENCE STUDENTS/ KOLTAY T IN: JOURNAL OF EDUCATION FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 1995 SPR Vol.36 No.2 Pages 170 - 173 CARLETON LIBRARY DOES NOT HOLD THIS TITLE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES DO NOT HOLD THIS TITLE

DOCUMENTARY ABSTRACTING - TOWARD A METHODOLOGICAL MODEL/ MOLINA MP IN: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE 1995 APR Vol.46 No.3 Pages 225 - 234 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z1001.A42 FLOOR 1 SER: v.21- 1970- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.47 no.11 / NOV 1996 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE In the general abstracting process (GAP), there are two types of data: textual, within a particularly framed trilogy (surface, deep, and rhetoric); and documentary (abstractor, means of production, and user demands). For its development, the use of the following disciplines, among others, is proposed: linguistics (structural, transformational, and textual), logic (formal and fuzzy), and psychology (cognitive). The model for that textual transformation is based on a system of combined strategies with four key stages: reading-understanding, selection, interpretation, and synthesis. INFORMATION-RETRIEVAL; SUMMARIZING TEXTS

HIGHLIGHTS - LANGUAGE-INDEPENDENT AND DOMAIN-INDEPENDENT AUTOMATIC-INDEXING TERMS FOR ABSTRACTING/ COHEN JD IN: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE 1995 APR Vol.46 No.3 Pages 162 - 174 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z1001.A42 FLOOR 1 SER: v.21- 1970- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.47 no.11 / NOV 1996 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE A method of drawing index terms from text is presented. The approach uses no stop list, stemmer, or other language- and domain-specific component, allowing operation in any language or domain with only trivial modification. The method uses n-gram counts, achieving a function similar to, but more general than, a stemmer. The generated index terms, which the author calls ''highlights,'' are suitable for identifying the topic for perusal and selection. An extension is also described and demonstrated which selects index terms to represent a subset of documents, distinguishing them from the corpus. Some experimental results are presented, showing operation in English, Spanish, German, Georgian, Russian, and Japanese. TEXT-RETRIEVAL; ALGORITHMS; SYSTEMS; ACCESS; ERRORS; WORDS

MACHINE-SUPPORTED CONDENSATION OF TECHNICAL TEXTS WITH CONNY - ABSTRACTING BY TAKING A NACHRICHTEN-FUR-DOKUMENTATION TEXTCORPUS AS AN EXAMPLE/ RUDA S IN: NACHRICHTEN FUR DOKUMENTATION 1994 NOV-DEC Vol.45 No.6 Pages 335 - 342 CARLETON LIBRARY DOES NOT HOLD THIS TITLE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES DO NOT HOLD THIS TITLE Documents of the journal ''Nachrichten fur Dokumentation'' written over a twenty-year period (1969-1989) by 50 different authors have been used as textcorpus. The analysis of the abstracts revealed that only 15 out of 50 abstracts consist exclusively of ''standard'' abstract sentences and that no abstract satisfies all requirements of the abstracting guidelines. In this respect, they signal the abstracting guidelines as ''wishful thinking'', which supports the idea of machine-supported abstracting by linguistic features. CONNY is an interactive linguistic abstracting model for technical texts offering the abstractor general abstracting guidelines operating on the surface structure. It condenses the parts of source text assessed as abstract relevant on source text, sentence and abstract level with regard to lexic, syntax and semantic.

A THESAURUS FOR USE IN A COMPUTER-AIDED ABSTRACTING TOOL KIT/ CRAVEN TC IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASIS ANNUAL MEETING 1993 Vol.30 Pages 178 - 184 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z699.A1A62 FLOOR 1 SER: v.5- 1968- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.31 / 1994 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE A multi-purpose thesaurus is among abstracting assistance features being prototyped in the TEXNET text network management system. The thesaurus is intended to support vocabulary control, including production of a variety of printed thesaurus displays, as well as automatic weighting of passages and Roget-style suggestion of alternate terms. INFORMATION-RETRIEVAL

A COMPUTER-AIDED ABSTRACTING TOOL KIT CRAVEN TC IN: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF INFORMATION AND LIBRARY SCIENCE-REVUE CANADIENNE DES SCIENCES DE L INFORMATION ET DE BIBLIOTHECONOMIE 1993 JUL Vol.18 No.2 Pages 19 - 31 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Z671.C32 FLOOR 1 SER: v.18- 1993- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.21 no.1 / 1996 APR UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES DO NOT HOLD THIS TITLE Abstracting assistance features are being prototyped in the TEXNET text network management system. Sentence weighting methods available include: weighting negatively or positively on the stems in a selected passage; weighting on general lists of cue words; adjusting weights of selected segments, and weighting on occurrences of frequent stems. The user may adjust a number of parameters: the minimum length of extracts; the threshold for a ''frequent'' word/stem; and the amount a sentence weight is to be adjusted for each weighting type. SENTENCE DEPENDENCY STRUCTURES; GRAPHIC DISPLAY

AUTOMATIC-ANALYSIS, THEME GENERATION, AND SUMMARY OF MACHINE-READABLE TEXTS/ SALTON G IN: SCIENCE 1994 JUN 3 Vol.264 No.5164 Pages 1421 - 1426 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE Q1.S35 FLOOR 1 SER: v.<56>, 1927; <87>-<92>- 1938- FLOOR 1 MICROFORMS MFL: v.1-142, 1895-1963; 151-268, 1966-95 CANCELLED 1995 LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: no.5290 / 11-15-96 UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE Vast amounts of text material are now available in machine-readable form for automatic processing. Here, approaches are outlined for manipulating and accessing texts in arbitrary subject areas in accordance with user needs. In particular, methods are given for determining text themes, traversing texts selectively, and extracting summary statements that reflect text content. RETRIEVAL; HYPERTEXT ALLAN J, BUCKLEY C, SINGHAL A,

MAIN POINTS IN AN INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT, AS IDENTIFIED BY STUDENTS AND BY THEIR TEACHERS/ SCHELLINGS GLM IN: READING RESEARCH QUARTERLY 1995 OCT-DEC Vol.30 No.4 Pages 742 - 756 CARLETON LIBRARY HOLDS THIS TITLE LB1050.R42 FLOOR 4 SER: v.5- 1969/70- LATEST ISSUE RECEIVED: vol.31 no.4 / 1996 OCT UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA LIBRARIES HOLD THIS TITLE THREE APPROACHES in identifying main points in instructional texts can be distinguished: a linguistic, a cognitive-psychological, and an educational approach. The linguistic approach assumes that any text contains fixed main points that can be deduced from its structure. The cognitive-psychological approach assumes that main points depend primarily on reader variables, such as the reader's own goals, interests, and previous knowledge. The educational approach regards main points to be dependent on instructional variables. In an instructional setting, it is important for students to assess which parts of the text their teacher considers important, because the reacher will set the task demands and test questions about that text. To obtain more insight into the educational approach, a study was conducted in which 88 secondary school students and their biology teachers in the Netherlands were asked to identify main points stated in an instructional biology text. They were required to underline text elements that they judged to be important in an instructional situation. There was a large variation in the number of main points underlined by the students and even by the teachers. There was also a large variation in the agreement or correspondence between students and their leachers. The students mentioned different kinds of reasons for selecting main points. It appeared that these reasons could be categorized on the basis of tile three forementioned approaches. Students who matched closely with their teacher mentioned educational reasons more often than students who marched poorly with their teacher. The educational approach could be a useful contribution in main idea comprehension research. SUMMARIZING TEXTS; WRITTEN SUMMARIES; STORY VANHOUTWOLTERS BHAM,

TEXT SKIMMING

Michael Mauldin, CMU Computer Science: Information Retrieval by Text Skimming. ABSTRACT I will report on the progress I have made for my thesis entitled Information Retrieval by Text Skimming.'' Most information retrieval systems today are word based. But simple word searches and frequency distributions do not provide these systems with an understanding of their texts. Full natural language parsers are capable of deep understanding within limited domains, but are too brittle and slow for general information retrieval.

My dissertation is an attempt to bridge this gap by using a text skimming parser as the basis for an information retrieval system that partially understands the texts stored in it. The objective is to develop a system capable of retrieving a significantly greater fraction of relevant documents than is possible with a keyword based approach, without retrieving a larger fraction of irrelevant documents. As part of my dissertation, I am implementing a full-text information retrieval system called FERRET (Flexible Expert Retrieval of Relevant English Texts). FERRET will provide information retrieval for the UseNet News system, a collection of 247 news groups covering a wide variety of topics. Currently FERRET reads SCI.ASTRO, the Astronomy news group, and part of my investigation will be to demonstrate the addition of new domains with only minimal hand coding of domain knowledge. FERRET will acquire the details of a domain automatically using a script learning component.

Information Retrieval by Text Skimming, PhD Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University. August, 1989 (also available as CMU Computer Science technical report CMU-CS-89-193)

10. M. Mauldin, "Information Retrieval by Text Skimming," doctoral dissertation, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Aug. 1989. (Also available as CMU Tech. Report CMU-CS-89-193.) Revised edition published as "Conceptual Information Retrieval: A Case Study in Adaptive Partial Parsing," Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Mass., Sept. 1991.

Klaus-Peter Gores with Rainer Bleisinger DFKIBIB DFKI Publications Technical Memos Year 94 _______________________________________________________________ TM-94-01 Text Skimming as a Part in Paper Document Understanding 14 Pages

Abstract

In our document understanding project ALV we analyse incoming paper mail in the domain of single-sided German business letters. These letters are scanned and after several analysis steps the text is recognized. The result may contain gaps, word alternatives, and even illegal words. The subject of this paper is the subsequent phase which concerns the extraction of important information predefined in our "message type model". An expectation driven partial text skimming analysis is proposed focussing on the kernel module, the so-called "predictor". In contrast to traditional text skimming the following aspects are important in our approach. Basically, the input data are fragmentary texts. Rather than having one text analysis module ("substantiator") only, our predictor controls a set of different and partially alternative substantiators.

With respect to the usually proposed three working phases of a predictor -- start, discrimination, and instantiation -- the following differences are remarkable. The starting problem of text skimming is solved by applying specialized substantiators for classifying a business letter into message types. In order to select appropriate expectations within the message type hypotheses a twofold discrimination is performed. A coarse discrimination reduces the number of message type alternatives, and a fine discrimination chooses one expectation within one or a few previously selected message types. According to the expectation selected substantiators are activated. Several rules are applied both for the verification of the substantiator results and for error recovery if the results are insufficient.

@InProceedings{ijcai77*16, author = "G. DeJong", title = "Skimming Newspaper Stories by Computer", pages = "16--16", editor = "Raj Reddy", booktitle = "Proceedings of the 5th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence", address = "Cambridge, MA", month = aug, year = "1977", publisher = "William Kaufmann", }

TAGGER

@InProceedings{cutting-kupiec-pedersen-sibun-92, author = "Doug Cutting and Julian Kupiec and Jan Pedersen and Penelope Sibun", title = "A Practical part-of-speech tagger", booktitle = "Proceedings of the Third Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing", year = "1992",